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The integration of water and fertilizer is more and more popular in agricultural irrigation. Today, the integration of water and fertilizer technology key points and details.
Water and fertilizer integration is to use the pressure irrigation system, the soluble solid fertilizer or liquid fertilizer mix and irrigation water, uniform and accurate transport to the root soil of crops. The irrigation and fertilization technology can be used to design the demand during the whole growth period according to the growth demand of crops, and provide the water and nutrients to the crops directly in proportion to the ration and timing. Pressure irrigation has the forms of sprinkler irrigation and micro-irrigation. Currently, the commonly used forms are the combination of micro-irrigation and fertilization. The microirrigation and fertilization system consists of four parts: water source, head hub, water distribution pipeline and irrigation device. Water sources: rivers, reservoirs, machine Wells, ponds, etc. The first hub comprises a motor, a water pump, a filter, a fertilizer, control and measurement equipment, and a protective device. Water distribution pipelines include main, dry, branch, capillary and pipeline control valves; The sprinkler includes drip head or sprinkler head and drip irrigation belt.
I. suitable scope of water and fertilizer integration
This technology is suitable for the regional promotion and application of fixed water sources, such as Wells, reservoirs, reservoirs, reservoirs, etc., with good water quality, meeting the requirements of micro-irrigation, and having or having conditions for the construction of micro-irrigation facilities. It is mainly suitable for cultivation of agricultural facilities, orchard cultivation, cotton and other large field economic crops, as well as other crops with good economic benefits.
Ii. Key technical points of water and fertilizer integration
1. Different micro-irrigation fertilization systems are selected according to water source, topography, planting area and crop types. Protectorate cultivation, sweet potato planting, field crops cultivation general choose fertigation system, fertilizer plant sites generally choose venturi fertilizer, differential fertilizer or fertilizer injection pump. In orchards, micro-spraying fertilization system is generally chosen, and fertilizer injection pump is generally selected for fertilization device. Automatic irrigation fertilization system can be selected where conditions permit.
2. Formulated microirrigation fertilization plan
(1) the determination of micro-irrigation system determines the irrigation quota according to the water demand of planting crops and the precipitation in the growing period of crops. The irrigation quota of fertilization in open microirrigation should be reduced by 50% compared with flood irrigation in large water, and the irrigation quota of drip irrigation in protected land should be reduced by 30% to 40% compared with border irrigation in large shed. After the irrigation quota is determined, the irrigation period, times and irrigation amount are determined according to the water demand law of crops, precipitation and soil moisture.
(2) there are significant differences between the determination of fertilization system in micro-irrigation and traditional fertilization. The reasonable fertilization system of micro-irrigation should firstly determine the total fertilizer amount, the proportion of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, and the proportion of bottom and fertilizer application according to the fertilizer requirement law of planting crops, the fertilizer level of plot and the target yield. The fertilizer for bottom fertilizer is applied before the whole land, and the quantity and quantity of fertilizer are determined according to the fertilizer demand characteristics of different crops in the growing period. The application of microirrigation fertilization technology can increase the utilization rate of fertilizer by 40-50%, so the fertilizer applied in microirrigation is 50-60% of conventional fertilization. Still in facility cultivation of tomato, for example, the target yield of 10000 kg/mu, each producing 1000 kg tomato absorbed N: 3.18 kg, P2O5:0.74 kg, K2O: 4.83 kg, nutrient N: is the total demand for 31.8 kg, P2O5:7.4 kg, K2O: 48.3 kg; The utilization rate of nitrogen fertilizer was 57%-65%, 35%-42%, 70%-80%. To achieve the above yield, N: 53.12 kg, P2O5:18.5 kg, K2O: 60.38 kg, a total of 132 kg (soil nutrient content is not calculated). Based on the nutritional characteristics of tomato, the fertilization scheme of tomato at each growth period was proposed.
(3) fertilizer selection micro-irrigation fertilization system applies the same bottom fertilizer as traditional fertilization, including multiple organic fertilizers and multiple fertilizers. However, the fertilizer varieties used in micro-irrigation must be soluble fertilizer. Meet the national standards or industry standards of urea, ammonium bicarbonate, ammonium chloride, ammonium sulfate, potassium sulfate, potassium chloride, such as fertilizer, high purity, less impurities, won't produce precipitation after soluble in water, can be used as a fertilizer. In general, soluble fertilizers such as potassium dihydrogen phosphate are used as fertilizer. Trace element fertilizer can not be used together with phosphorus fertilizer to prevent the formation of insoluble phosphate precipitation and plug the drip head or sprinkler head.
3, form a complete set of technical implementation of cucumber crop varieties to form a complete set of application, pest control and the management technology, but also for each crop condition, adopts the technology of plastic film mulching, forming film with drip irrigation and other forms, give full play to the water saving section fertilizer advantage, to improve crop yield, improve crop quality and increase efficiency.
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